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Date: 23 July 2014
Glossary We are Type Professionals, so Type terms are used throughout this site. Understandably the use of such terms can be intimidating, not to mention confusing, but [to us anyway] always interesting. We felt it important to explain the meanings of this 'Jargon'. Font Factory are firm believers in education. Better informed customers make better informed decisions about the type they specify. This can only result in better design and better communications. Enjoy this Glossary!

Term Image Description
AccentsAccents, also known as diacritical marks, are linguistic signs used to denote a differing sound of a character (glyph) or in some cases to distinguish the meaning of a word. The Standard Extended ASCII character set accommodates all the latin based Western European languages. | Acute ΄ | Bolle (Angstrom, Ring) ˚ | Breve ˘ | Caron (Hacek) ˇ | Cedilla η | Circumflex ˆ | Grave ` | Macron ― | Umlaut (Dieresis) ¨ | Tilde ˜
AlphanumericA set of alphabetic characters and numerals set together
AmpersandThe commonly used symbol used for 'and', being derived from the Latin 'et'. Employed in many situations but the correct use is between proper names, such as Smith & Wesson.
AntiquaA term used to describe typefaces having OLD FACE letterforms.
ApexDescribes the upper points of the junctions of the STEMS of characters like A, M, W, that meet at less than 90Ί
ArmThe projecting, unclosed or short OBLIQUE strokes in characters like E, L, C, and S.
AscenderThe parts of some LOWER CASE characters like b, d and h that rise above the X-HEIGHT. In many book typefaces the ascenders are higher than the capitals.
Ascender HeightThe distance between the top of the x-height and the tops of lowercase characters such as 'b', 'd', 'f', and 'k'. May be stated as the distance from the top of the BASELINE to the tops of the ASCENDERS.
Ascender LineAn imaginary line drawn along the tops of the ASCENDERS.
ASCIIMost fonts are character (glyph) mapped according to the layout of the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, which is limited to 128 characters but in its extended form it covers up to 256 (8 Bit) locations.
BackslantTypeface characters with a left inclination.
BarA horizontal stroke in characters as found in H, A, G, e etc.
BaselineAn imaginary line where the bottoms of characters without DESCENDERS sit, or align.
Baseline AlignmentThe traditional method used by typesetting systems and applications for aligning type.
BeakThe one-sided SERIF on the ARMS of characters like E, F, C, G, T and Z.
Black FaceA synonym for BOLD FACE.
BlackletterA group of typefaces that evolved from the broad-nib penstyle of gothic lettering used by scribes in Northern Europe. Sometimes called OLD ENGLISH, and in Europe, GOTHIC! It is important to note that the correct term is GOTHIC and not BLACKLETTER.
Body SizeAn archaic, yet appropraite term that describes the height of an item of lead on which a character is cast. It is equal to the type's point size and includes room for ascenders and descenders, plus the white space above and below them.
BodytextAn area, or a column of type, usually between 5 and 14 point size.
BoldA contraction for BOLD FACE.
Bold FaceThe relative blackness of a typeface where strokes have been thickened.
BowlThe oval or circular forms of characters, either complete as in 'O' or 'Q', or partial as in 'P', 'p'.
BraceA BRACE comes in a number of sizes and is used join two or more lines of type
Bracketed SerifsSERIFS joined to the stem of a character by a continuous curve.
BracketsThere are two types of brackets, the Curved and the Square. The curved versions are known as parentheses. Brackets are used to enclose matter non-essential to the meaning of a sentence, an author's aside or text references. In order of use the square should be used first.
BreveA curved accent over a VOWEL indicating that it is pronounced with a short sound.
Brush ScriptA group of typefaces that appear to be hand drawn with a brush.
BulletA typographic mark in the form of a large dot often used to give emphasis in text.
CalligraphyThe exquisite art of beautiful handwriting usually scribed with a broad nibbed pen and ink.
Cap HeightThe distance from the BASELINE to the top of the CAPITALS.
Capital LineWhen no lower case characters with ascenders appear, the CAPITAL LINE is an imaginary line running along the tops of capital letters. Capital height is measured from baseline to capital line.
CapsA contraction or abbrevation for CAPITALS or UPPER CASE.
Case FractionSmall offset FRACTIONS designed as a single unit, also known as solid fractions, may also be available as horizontal fractions.
CedillaA DIACRITICAL MARK, to denote the different sound of a character, aways attached to the letters C, c and used mainly in French.
Centre [Center]In BODYTEXT where each line is to a different measure - a format whereby the column is RAGGED equally to both left and right.
Centreline AlignmentThe setting of individual letters midway between the BASELINE and the CAPITAL LINE.
Chancery ItalicA roman handwriting style of the 15th century, originating in the Chancery of the Vatican.
CharacterIn any TYPEFACE prepared for mechanical reproduction a single typographic sign or element.
Character StrokeThe individual linear element of a typographic character.
CirceroThe Cicero is a typographic unit of measurement used in Europe. It is slightly larger than the Pica, and 12 Didot Points equals one Circero, the same relationship as Points to Pica in the British/American system.
CircumflexA DIACRITICAL MARK derived from a mark signifying a contraction. Used in the French, Italian, Portuguese and Dutch languages.
CondensedOne of the many variants to the relative width of a typeface, in this case, individual characters are narrower than the width of the regular character weight of the font.
Copperplate ScriptA group of typefaces based on traditional 18th century engraved letters.
Copyright MarkThe Copyright Mark indicates that a design has been claimed as owned by a Legal entity. This is a form of protection against plagiarism. The Mark is 'owned' and 'protected' by the laws of most jurisdictions.
CounterThe white, or negative, space enclosed by the strokes of characters.
CursiveAnother word for Script.
DashesIn typesetting three different dashes are available, each one has specific uses. > Hyphen: The shortest dash. Should be used mainly to hyphenate words and to link compound words. > En Dash: Half the width of an Em. Normally used to denote the words ‘and’, ‘to’. It is the correct dash to indicate a span of time, 1950–1960. > Em Dash: The width of an Em. Used to separate statements not essential to the sentence and also to indicate a pause.
DescenderThe Descender is the part of some lower case characters like 'p', 'q', 'j' et al, which hang below the baseline
DingbatsA font consisting of small ornamental elements that are normally not found in a standard character set, symbols such as stars, fleurons, hands etc. Dingbats are usually more ornate than Pi characters. Some manufacturers call such collections Sorts or Wingdings.
DiphthongA diphthong is two letters joined together but pronounced as a single sound. The most common diphthongs are, ‘ζ’ and ‘œ’. For example Julius Caesar should be typeset as Cζsar.
Drop CapAn initial capital letter that starts a paragraph and is significantly larger than the point size of the text. Good typography requires that if the initial starts a word, the rest of the word should be in small caps also if the word is short then the next word should be in small caps as well. see Versals
EarThe Ear is the small stroke that emerges from the right side of a bowl of certain characters as in a 'g', and the stem of an 'r'.
EgyptianA monoline typestyle originating in the early 19th century having unbracketed thick 'slab' serifs.
EllipsisThree periods that function as a single character, (accessible in most book fonts). When used in text they indicate that something has been omitted or there is a pause.
EmA relative unit of measurement that is based upon the square of the width of the capital ‘M’. Being relative its absolute measurement will depend upon the type size being set.
Em SquareThe widths of all characters in a typeface are related to the number of divisions of the Em Square, the 1000 units Em Square being fairly standard. These width values are called Relative Units.
FolioThe Folio is the page number but it can also include dates and embellishments that are placed with a page number.
FootA Foot is a one sided serif that sits on the baseline of characters like 'd', and 'b'.
FootnotesShort explanatory notes printed at the foot of a page or at the end of of the book. If at the end of the book then numbers are used as markers rather than reference marks.
GlyphThe smallest semantic unit of a language, for example each different form of the character ‘A’ is a different Glyph.
Hanging PunctuationWhen punctuation is set outside the margins of the text so that the type aligns vertically the technique is called Hanging Punctuation. Such an approach is most effective in display text when used in posters and billboards.
Inferiors (Subscript)Inferiors are small characters, (usually numbers), that are positioned below the baseline. In Chemistry the numbers represent the Valency values. For example the chemical notation for water should be H2O, any other positioning makes the notation meaningless.
InterrobangThe Interrobang is a symbol that had some popularity in the 1960s. It was intended to be used to express both a question and an exclamation at the same time, as in the following statement - “Who needs it? !”
JustificationJustification normally applies to body text in which all the lines are are made to the same length, giving the text column vertical alignment both right and left. Most books, particularly novels are typeset this way. If the text column is narrow then it becomes essential to introduce hyphenation.
KerningKerning is the adjustment of space between letters, particularly letters that don’t naturally fit together. There are many such combinations in the English language. Quality fonts will have at least 500 kerning pairs. Such pairs will automatically subtract or add space, as the text is set. A list of the kerning pairs can be found in the font’s AFM file.
LeadingLeading [also referred to as linospacing] is the white space added between lines of type. Sophisticated applications like InDesign, QuarkXpress, and to a lesser extent MS Word, allow the user to adjust Leading for effect, [more open or more closed] or to assure legibility.
LigaturesLigatures are the combining of two letters to produce a more pleasing typographic result. For example in many book fonts if a ‘f’ is followed by an ‘i’ then the dot of the ‘i’ will kiss the top of the ‘f’. To solve this problem a ‘fi’ ligature is available and it is common practice to have at least three ligatures incorporated in most quality fonts.
Lining Figures [Numbers]The modern number sets are all the same height and have the same optical baseline, such numbers are called Lining Numbers. The alternative is Old Style Figures, which usually have the 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 below the baseline but will have 6 and 8 extending above the other figures. Old Style Figures are commonly used in book folios but never in annual reports.
LinkThe Link is the stroke connecting the Bowl and Loop of the letter 'g'.
LoopThe Loop is the rounded form in the lower part of the letter 'g'. In some typefaces it is open!
Lower CaseLower Case letters are the small non-capital letters of a font. They are also known as miniscules and often abbreviated to 'lc'.
Mean LineThe Mean Line is an imaginary line running along the tops of all lower case characters without ascenders.
ObliqueAn Obliqued character or word is one that has had a slope applied [by the computer and usually between 9% and 11%] to its Roman to effect a simulated italics. True Italics are not simply sloped romans, but are specifically designed characters.
Old Style Figures [OsF]Old Style Figures, usually have the 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 below the baseline but will have 6 and 8 extending above the other figures. Old Style Figures are commonly used in book folios but never in annual reports.
OpenTypeThe OpenType format supports Unicode™. OpenType fonts can contain large character sets. OpenType fonts can contain more than 65,000 characters! This is a considerable increase in character set size over past formats; most PostScript and TrueType fonts could only contain 256 characters. Unicode-support gives OpenType fonts much better language support opportunities than PostScript or TrueType fonts have available. Instead of one font for each language group (Western Roman, CE, Baltic, etc.), OpenType character sets can include all of these code pages in one single font. In addition to Western characters (ISO Latin 1, etc) and their accents, common additional characters include Central and Eastern European, Cyrillic, and Greek. Some fonts may even include Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Hebrew, or Arabic. Fonts for languages that are written from right to left (i.e., Arabic) may require special applications and/or system support in order to function properly. OpenType makes advanced typographic and language dependent features easily available to all users. For instance, the advanced typographic features in OpenType fonts commonly include a wide range of special glyphs, which can include ligatures, titling and swash characters, old style figures, small caps, fractions, and historical glyphs. In the past, each of these so-called "Expert" character sets had to be packaged in a separate font file, making the setting of advanced typographic features cumbersome. Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh modern operating systems accept OpenType fonts and the same font file will load into either. But it is important to remember that not all OpenType features are available in every application; some applications are not yet OpenType-savvy, as support of OpenType fonts is highly dependant on the applications’ level of Unicode support. OpenType fonts may still be used in applications that are not OpenType-savvy. However, in these applications, only the first 256 characters of the font’s character set will be accessible (this is the basic character set for Western Roman languages).
OrphanThis is the unfortunate situation where the first line of a new paragraph falls at the bottom of a page and hence is separated from the paragraph on the next page. Good quality publications avoid Orphans wherever possible.
PibbleThe name used to describe a word set to look very much like its meaning. For example using a fractured typeface such as ITC Shatter to typeset the heading Earthquake.
Point SizeA Point is a unit of Type measurement. • The Anglo-American point is the smallest whole typographic increment used. One such point equal to 0.35136mm or 0.0138 inch • In most European countries it is a Didot point where one is equal to 0.376mm or 0.015 inch, often written as 1ptD. • The point size of a computer font is applied by the user within applications, either from a drop down selection menu, or by typing in any point size required. Font software is fully scalable and will display and print at the nominated point size.
PostScript - MACA page description language (PDL) developed by Adobe Systems. PostScript is primarily a language for printing documents on laser printers, but it can be adapted to produce images on other types of devices. PostScript is the standard for desktop publishing because it is supported by imagesetters, the very high-resolution printers used by service bureaus to produce camera-ready copy. PostScript is an object-oriented language, meaning that it treats images, including fonts, as collections of geometrical objects rather than as bit maps. PostScript fonts are called outline fonts because the outline of each character is defined. They are also called scalable fonts because their size can be changed with PostScript commands. Given a single typeface definition, a PostScript printer can thus produce a multitude of fonts. In contrast, many non-PostScript printers represent fonts with bit maps. To print a bit-mapped typeface with different sizes, these printers require a complete set of bit maps for each size. There are three basic versions of PostScript: Level 1, Level 2 and PostScript 3. Level 2 PostScript, which was released in 1992, has better support for colour printing. PostScript 3, release in 1997, supports more fonts, better graphics handling, and includes several features to speed up PostScript printing. On a Macintosh, one will load a printer Outline file, a Screen File and if required, a Metrics file.
PostScript - UNIX/LunixA page description language (PDL) developed by Adobe Systems. PostScript is primarily a language for printing documents on laser printers, but it can be adapted to produce images on other types of devices. PostScript is the standard for desktop publishing because it is supported by imagesetters, the very high-resolution printers used by service bureaus to produce camera-ready copy. PostScript is an object-oriented language, meaning that it treats images, including fonts, as collections of geometrical objects rather than as bit maps. PostScript fonts are called outline fonts because the outline of each character is defined. They are also called scalable fonts because their size can be changed with PostScript commands. Given a single typeface definition, a PostScript printer can thus produce a multitude of fonts. In contrast, many non-PostScript printers represent fonts with bit maps. To print a bit-mapped typeface with different sizes, these printers require a complete set of bit maps for each size. There are three basic versions of PostScript: Level 1, Level 2 and PostScript 3. Level 2 PostScript, which was released in 1992, has better support for colour printing. PostScript 3, release in 1997, supports more fonts, better graphics handling, and includes several features to speed up PostScript printing. Up to 4 font files are required for a PostScript font to function in UNIX Operating Systems. The PFB file contains the Font Outline data, the PFM file contains the Font Screen data, the AFM file contains the Font Metrics and the INF file contains the Install data.
PostScript - WindowsA page description language (PDL) developed by Adobe Systems. PostScript is primarily a language for printing documents on laser printers, but it can be adapted to produce images on other types of devices. PostScript is the standard for desktop publishing because it is supported by imagesetters, the very high-resolution printers used by service bureaus to produce camera-ready copy. PostScript is an object-oriented language, meaning that it treats images, including fonts, as collections of geometrical objects rather than as bit maps. PostScript fonts are called outline fonts because the outline of each character is defined. They are also called scalable fonts because their size can be changed with PostScript commands. Given a single typeface definition, a PostScript printer can thus produce a multitude of fonts. In contrast, many non-PostScript printers represent fonts with bit maps. To print a bit-mapped typeface with different sizes, these printers require a complete set of bit maps for each size. There are three basic versions of PostScript: Level 1, Level 2 and PostScript 3. Level 2 PostScript, which was released in 1992, has better support for colour printing. PostScript 3, release in 1997, supports more fonts, better graphics handling, and includes several features to speed up PostScript printing. Up to 4 font files are required for a PostScript font to function in Windows. The PFB file contains the Font Outline data, the PFM file contains the Font Screen data, the AFM file contains the Font Metrics and the INF file contains the Install data. If the PFM file is missing, Windows creates this from the PFB file. The INF file is not usually required in modern Windows Operating Systems.
RaggedThe term Ragged is used to identify bodytext in which each line is to a different measure. The effect is that one side of the column of text will not line up vertically. The term Ragged Right is usually used in association with Flush Left. This is also know as unjustified type setting
Registered MarkThe Registered Mark indicates that a design has been registered as a form of protection against plagiarism. The Mark is 'owned' and 'protected' by the laws of most jurisdictions.
Run-aroundRun-around type is where indvidual lines are measured and set seperately to fit around an illustration, image, other type, or display matter.
ShearShear is the angle at which the terminal of character strokes is cleanly cut off.
Small CapsCapital letters specifically drawn slightly higher than the lower case x-height of the alphabet being used. Often abbreviated to SC and not available in all fonts.
SpineThe Spine is the main stroke of athe character 'S', minus the arm[s]
SpurThe Spur is the short sipke at the base of the Stem of an upper case 'G'.
StemThe Stem is the straight, vertical or almost vertical, full length stroke within a character.
Superiors (Superscript)Superiors are small numbers (sometimes letters or symbols) positioned just above the cap height. An essential requirement for some forms of mathematics and also used to indicate footnote references.
SwashSwash letters are ornamental flourishes added to some Upper Case characters often used at the beginning or end of a word or paragraph.
TailThe Tail is the stroke of a character that descends from left to right as presented in a 'K' and 'R'.
TradeMark MarkThe TradeMark Mark indicates that a design has been registered as a form of protection against plagiarism. The Mark is 'owned' and 'protected' by the laws of most juristictions.
TrueTypeTrueType is a digital font technology designed by Apple Computer, and used by both Apple and Microsoft in their operating systems. TrueType fonts offer the highest possible quality on computer screens and printers, and include a range of features which make them easy to use. The TrueType font technology consists of two components: the TrueType fonts themselves, and the TrueType rasterizer, a piece of software built into System 7.x+ on the Apple Macintosh range of computers, and also into Microsoft's Windows 3.1+ family of operating systems. Both components - the font and the rasterizer, are necessary to display and print TrueType fonts on a computer system. It is the interaction between the TrueType fonts, the TrueType rasterizer and the software program in which the TrueType font is used that determines the appearance of the letterforms in the font.
UNICODE-1• Unicode Name • Official English name of a character, fixed in the Unicode Standard alongside its hexadecimal number under its Unicode code point (eg. LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A) • Unicode-Standard • International standard aiming to define and encode every known graphic character or element of all known written languages. The goal is to reach international compatibility as well as platform-independent file transfer. The Unicode Standard uses a 16-bit index and so far supports 1.114.112 characters, 65.000 of which are on the BMP. • Unicode Block • The characters encoded in the Unicode are separated into blocks according to the script they belong to. There are 105 blocks on the BMP such as Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Devanagari, Hangul etc. • Unicode Consortium • A non-profit organisation founded to develop, extend and promote the Unicode Standard. It is financed soleley by private funding and open for membership for firms, organisations as well as private persons. The Unicode Consortium published the first version of the Standard in1991 and has been updating it ever since. The Unicode Consortium cooperates with the ISO and they jointly publish every new version of the Unicode which is currently Version 4.0 (and a minor update to 4.1). • thank you decodeunicode.org •
UNICODE-2• How many languages are covered by Unicode 4.0? • Many scipts, take the latin characters for example, are used for a huge number of languages. One could simply say that Unicode covers every language written in one of the following scripts: Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Armenian, Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, Thaana, Devanagari, Bengali, Gurmukhi, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Sinhala, Thai, Lao, Tibetan, Myanmar, Georgian, Hangul, Ethiopic, Cherokee, Ogham, Runic, Tagalog, Hanunoo, Buhid, Tagbanwa, Khmer, Mongolian, Limbu, Tai Le, Han (Japanese, Chinese, Korean), Hiragana, Katakana, Bopomofo, Yi, Linear B, Gothic, Ugaritic, Cypriot. • thank you decodeunicode.org •
UNICODE-3decodeunicode.org - • And what in the world is an Ogonek? • Do I place the yen before or after the amount? Is there another use for the at-symbol besides email-addresses? Which characters does one need for Turkish? And what in the world is an Ogonek? To meet the requirements of global communication, every modern operating system facilitates the access to a great variety of scripts: Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, Thai, Chinese, Braille, to name just a few. There's also a huge number of special characters such as dingbats, copyright characters, currency symbols, mathematical characters and punctuation. Just the pre-installed system fonts on a PC confront the user with thousands of unfamiliar characters. Many users stand helpless in the face of such vast numbers of characters, they simply lack the knowledge about the various meanings and typographically correct use of all those "new" characters. decodeunicode is an independent platform for digital type culture, conceived and developed under the lead of professor Johannes Bergerhausen in cooperation with the designer Siri Poarangan at the University of Applied Sciences Mainz. The project is supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and has the objectives of creating a basis for fundamental typographic research and facilitating a textual approach to the characters of the world for all computer users. That way, expert knowledge can be systematically collected and made accessible to the general public. The wondrous multiplication of characters in the computer in the last couple of years went mainly unnoticed. The technical background of this silent typographic revolution is called Unicode. This character encoding standard is already established as a world standard and today, it encodes over 50.000 characters on its first and already accessible plane. Alas, the communication media of the non-profit organisation Unicode Consortium are directed exclusively at IT-specialists for multilingual text processing. And as important as the published code charts and technical descriptions are for programmers, they are unsuitable as a guidance for the average user. decodeunicode places itself as an open science project that specifically builds upon the participation of online users. The submission of information follows the WIKI-principle that's been used successfully for years by the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. At decodeunicode.org every interested keyboarder can comfortably do research, write new articles or edit those already existing. For quality assurance the entries for the various character sets are additionally monitored by moderators that can delete entries if required. The interface of the project's website is self-explanatory and focuses on individual characters. The characters of the Basic Multilingual Plane hold an absolutely new potential for typesetting and design. There's a lot to discover amongst convoluted arabic ligatures, complex chinese ideographs and german umlauts. www.decodeunicode.org is online since May 2005 with images and names of over 50.000 characters. decodeunicode.org • thank you decodeunicode.org •
UNICODE-4 Basic LatinASCII The first 128 code points in Unicode are identical with ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), a standard which was first published in 1963. ASCII is a 7-bit code originally designed for teleprinters, containing 33 control characters and 95 printing characters. It is adequate for writing basic English, Hawaiian, and Swahili, but hardly anything else. Some English words, such as rιsumι, are properly written using non-ASCII characters, but often written without them. Code points U+0000 to U+001F (0–31 decimal) and U+007F (255 decimal) are control characters. EDIT Control Characters Code points U+0000 to U+001F (0–31 decimal) and U+007F (127 decimal) are called control characters because they were originally used to control computer teletype equipment for which the ASCII standard was designed. Teletype equipment has since become obsolete and the control characters are now used as delimiters in text files and as control characters for data terminals and terminal emulator programs. On most keyboards, the characters 0–31 can be generated by holding down the Control key and pressing the key for the character 64 positions higher. For example, SOH can be generated by holding down Control and pressing A. This is often abbreviated as a caret and the character, e.g. ^A. • thank you decodeunicode.org •
UNICODE-5 Latin-1 SupplemenThe 128 characters in this Unicode block are identical to the upper eight-bit characters in the ISO 8859-1 standard, which was derived from the DEC VT220 terminal\'s \"Multinational Character Set\". The accented characters in this block can be used to supplement the ASCII block in the representation of many Western and Northern European languages, such as French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish and Icelandic. One flaw is that the french character œ and Œ is not included in the ISO 8859-1. It was said that writing oe and OE was acceptable, but it is not always good enough. EDIT Vulgar Fractions Code Points U+00BC, U+00BD, and U+00BE are complemented by the Vulgar Fractions at code points U+2153 through U+215F • thank you decodeunicode.org •
UNICODE-6 Latin Extended-ALanguages Afrikaans, Azerbaijani, Bosnian, Catalan, Croatian, Czech, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, Gaelic (old orthography), Hungarian, Igbo, Irish, Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Sami, Serbian (Latin), Sorbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Turkish, Welsh, also Esperanto The latin script is found in several Unicode-Blocks: – U+0000 – U+007F Controls and Basic (also known as ASCII) – U+0080 – U+00FF Controls and Latin-1 – U+0100 – U+017F Latin Extended-A – U+0180 – U+024F Latin Extended-B – U+1E00 – U+1EFF Latin Extended • thank you decodeunicode.org •
UNICODE-7 IPA Extensions• International Phonetic Alphabet • The IPA is a notational standard for the phonetic representation of all languages. It was established in 1886 by the International Phonetic Association (IPA also) and was based on the latin script. In the course of its history it went through a lot of changes and today, it is the world standard. The latest Version of the IPA Alphabet was published in 1993, updated 1996. • Inserting IPA symbols in web documents • There are two ways to insert Unicode IPA symbols into your HTML files: by using MS Word (97 and later), or by using a numeric code. Word 97+.With a Unicode font selected, use Insert | Symbol (normal text) and scroll down the box until you find the character you want. Select it, and Insert. Afterwards, save the document using File | Save as HTML. Word will automatically convert the character into the corresponding numeric entity (see next para) or the corresponding UTF-8 encoding. (If you are going to use the character frequently, it might be worthwhile assigning a Shortcut Key (macro) for it.) Alternatively, write direct HTML, referencing each IPA symbol using the code. You can do this using either decimal or hex numbers. To create such a \"numeric entity\", you put ampersand (&), number sign (#), the Unicode number for the symbol, and semicolon. If using hex numbers, you must place an x between the number sign and the number. For example, to include the velar nasal symbol, ŋ, which has the Unicode decimal number 331, write ŋ, or, since its hex number is U+014B, you can alternatively write ŋ. To transcribe the English word thing, θɪŋ, write θɪŋ or, alternatively, θɪŋ. The browser will render these with the correct IPA symbols, always provided an appropriate font is available. Force the use of an appropriate font by including a font tag as mentioned above, for example in your cascading style sheet, p {font-family:\"lucida sans unicode\";}, or in the text, an in-line tag . Source: phon.ucl.ac.uk • thank you decodeunicode.org •
VirguleThis is the correct name for the backward slash (/) or Shilling Mark, it is also known as a Solidus.
White River DiseaseThis is the name given to the typographic problem which unfortunately is common with body text set in narrow columns, such as newspapers and magazines. The problem arises because sometimes the only way to justify a line is to move the last word to the right and add extra space. If this happens too often a river of white space becomes apparent.
WidowA word or line of type at the end of a paragraph that is less than half the column width. Widows are undesirable in good quality text setting but sometimes very hard to avoid.
x-heightThe distance from the BASELINE to the top of the LOWERCASE x.
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